Kolomea

שם באנגלית: 
Kolomea
שם באוקראינית: 
Kolomyia (Коломия)
שם בפולנית: 
Kołomyia
שם בגרמנית: 
Kolomea
שם ברוסית: 
Kolomyia [Коломыя]
שם בעברית: 
Kolomea [קולומיאה]
שם ביידיש: 
Kolomey [קולומיי]
אזור היסטורי-תרבותי: 
Eastern Galicia - Pokuttia
היסטוריה מנהלית: 
Years State Province District
Till 1772 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: Kingdom of Poland

Rus Voivodship (Województwo ruskie)

 
1772-1914 "Hapsburg Empire", since 1804 - Austrian Empire, since 1867 - Austro-Hungarian Monarchy Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien) Kołomyia powiat
1914-1915 Under Russian occupation General-Government Galitsiia Kołomyia uezd
1915-1918 Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria (Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien)

Kołomyia powiat
1918 - May 1919 West-Ukrainian People's Republic    
May 1919 - September 1939 Republic of Poland Stanislawów wojewódstwo  Kołomyia powiat
September 1939 - June 1941 USSR: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Stanislav oblast' Kolomyia raion
June 1941 - July 1944 Under German occupation:  

General Government (Das Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete)

Distrikt Galizien  
1944-91 USSR: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Stanislavov (Stanislaviv) oblast'; since 1962 renamed Ivano-Frankovsk (Ivano-Frankivs'k) oblast' Kolomyia raion
Since 1991 Republic of Ukraine Ivano-Frankivs'k oblast' Kolomyia raion

 

Kolomyia. City Map 1939.

Kolomea  is a city located on the Prut river, 65 km from Ivano-Frankivsk. The city rests approximately halfway between Lviv and Chernivtsi (Czernowitz), in the center of the historical region of Pokuttya.

Kolomia, the most developed city in Pokuttya at the time, boasted a large Jewish community – on the eve of the Second World War its numbers reached 18,930 (out of a general population of 42,676). This community was culturally vibrant and complex, and its influence on the Jewish culture of Galicia was significant. Before the Holocaust there were approximately 50 operational synagogues in Kolomia, among them the magnificent “Die Hoiche Shul,” a Yerushalmi synagogue, diverse Hassidic kloizes and a Zionist synagogue. One of the central rabbinic figures of Europe, Rabbi Hillel Lichtenstein, presided as the Rabbi of the city for 23 years (1815-1895). Rabbi Lichtenstein was particularly active in the battle waged between the progressive and orthodox factions over the shaping of modern Judaism during the second half of the 19th century. Jewish political and cultural organizations which developed toward the end of the 19th century enriched communal life, and the city was home to a variety of educational institutions, reflecting a wide array of ideological stances. Between the two World Wars a public library, named after Yitzhok Leibush Peretz, operated in the city.

Kolomia’s Jews had an important role in the economic development of the region. There were many Jewish businesses in the city: flour mills, beer breweries, banks, tanneries, weaving and prayer shawls factories and brick-making factories, oil refineries and more.

 

Jewish printers published books and other materials, not only for Jews but also for their Christian neighbors – Polish or Ukranian. 

Beginning in the second half of the 19th centuries, Jews took an active part in the communal and political life of the city. Kolomian Jews were chosen as representatives for the Galician Sejm and the Vienna Parliament. Jews had respectable representation in municipal government and Jewish representatives were even appointed to mayoral and vice-mayoral positions.

During the Holocaust all of the Jews of Kolomia and its environs were concentrated in a ghetto comprised of three separate sections. During 1942 these sections were burned and the entire population of the ghetto was destroyed: some were murdered in the city streets, others were taken to the Belzec extermination camp, and the rest were shot in the forest adjoining the village of Sheparivtsy, near the city. Nowadays there are several dozen Jews living in Kolomia – the descendants of the families who settled in the city after its liberation by the Soviet army.

נתוני אוכלוסייה: 
Year Total Jews Percentage of Jews
1765 -  1,057 -
1880  23,109  12,002  51.9%
1890  30,235  14,927  49.3%
1900  34,188  16,568  48.4%
1910  42,676  18,930  44.3%
1920  31,708  14,544  45.8%
1931    14,332  
1993   68,000    
2005  61,210    

For photographs of Kolomea see Gallery section.