Baranów באראנוב

Name in English: 
Baranuv
Name in Polish: 
Baranów Sandomierski
Name in Hebrew: 
באראנוב
Historical-cultural region: 
Western Galicia
Administrative District : 
Subcarpathian Voivodeship
Population Data: 

  Year  

  General Population  

  Jews  

1765

(?)

300

1848

(?)

1021

1880

2002

1155

1890

2371

1491

1900

1817

918

1910

1764

894

1921

1794

745

 

Baranów (Barniv) is located c. 26km southwest of Sandomierz c. 60km south of Tarnów, on the banks of the Vistula River. It is not known when settlement of this place first began, but a fortress was established there by the early 12th century. In 1353, Casimir III the Great granted it rights giving it the status of a city, and an annual fair was established there. The city’s location helped its economic development, as it enabled the transport of train from the city via raft down the Vistula to Gdańsk (Danzig), on the Baltic Sea.

To that end, grain silos were brought into the city from the agricultural estates in the region. The fortress, which eventually became a palace, served both as a resort for Polish kings and magnates and as the home of the city’s owners, the Baranowski family. In the 18th century, many objets d’art and important literary manuscripts were collected and kept in the palace. Baranów was settled by members of “other faiths” – that is, non-Catholics – as well: Calvinists and Jews. In 1604, a convocation of Polish Calvinists was held in Baranów, and not long afterwards a Catholic-owned print house was established in town which also printed books that appealed to Protestants.
Over the years, Baranów also experienced various wars, which impacted Polish cities in general: The Lithuanian incursions of the 14th century and the wars against the Swedes and Cossacks in the 17th century, in addition to internal conflicts, brought great damage onto the city and its fortress. The fortress was renovated and upgraded several times until it ultimately became a palace. The ruined city was also rebuilt several times.
Before the Partition of Poland, Baranów belonged to the Sandomierz Country. After the partition, it became part of Tarnów County, then part of Mielec County in 1860, and finally part of Tarnobrzeg County after World War I. The city’s major economic decline took place primarily after the First Partition of Poland in 1772, when it became part of Austrian Galicia. With the development of railroad throughout Galicia, market shifts, and the reduced importance of the Vistula as a route for the transportation of goods, the city’s status declined. Devastating fires in 1890 and 1896 also hurt the city and its residents’ finances.