Galicia and Bukovina were the origin of a Jewish heritage that stands out for several unique features. Located at the intersection of areas of Polish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian and Russian cultural influence, these regions saw the emergence of a particularly creative and dynamic Jewish culture. They provided the backdrop for major advances in rabbinic literature and modern Jewish thought, and were the site of some of the most vibrant and influential Hassidic courts. They were also the site of origin of several notable modern Jewish writers, the most famous of them being Shmuel Yosef Agnon (in Hebrew), Itzik Manger (in Yidish), Joseph Roth and Paul Celan (in German) and Bruno Schulz (in Polish). Additional individuals of note are Jews of Galician and Bukovinian origin who made notable contributions to several of the arts, scholars, statesmen and scientists.