The Yiddish Sonnets by M. Freed (abstract)

Community: 
Attached files: 

Loyalty to the Empire as the element of identity of Jewish entrepreneurs in Drohobych (abstract)

Community: 
Attached files: 

Zionism among Jewish petroleum workers as result of dynamic changes in Jewish identity

Community: 

Conference Abstract

Attached files: 

Changes of philanthropy strategies in Drohobych Jewish Community 1860-1900

Community: 

Conference Abstract

Attached files: 

From political settlement to the self-identification with the Polish nation. History of the Jewish community of the city of Lviv from 1873 till 1914

Community: 

Conference Abstract

Attached files: 

The formation of Brody’s "ghetto" image in the works of Hermann Menkes and Leo Herzberg-Fränkel.

Community: 

Conference Abstract

Attached files: 

Between Austrian Liberalism and Polish Federalism A comparison of the formation of new cultural and political identities among the Jewish population of Lviv and Brody in the second half of the 19th century.

Community: 

Conference Abstract

Attached files: 

Between Austrian Liberalism and Polish Federalism A comparison of the formation of new cultural and political identities among the Jewish population of Lviv and Brody in the second half of the 19th century.

Community: 

Conference Abstract

Attached files: 

Articles

Due to the different rulers throughout the years and the human structure of the Jews in Galicia and Bukovina their history is complex. This section offers short descriptions on some of the main Jewish communities in the region throughout the years. You can also read short definitions of Jewish things related to the heritage of Galician end Bukovinian Jewries. 

Notable people

Galicia and Bukovina were the origin of a Jewish heritage that stands out for several unique features. Located at the intersection of areas of Polish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian and Russian cultural influence, these regions saw the emergence of a particularly creative and dynamic Jewish culture. They provided the backdrop for major advances in rabbinic literature and modern Jewish thought, and were the site of some of the most vibrant and influential Hassidic courts. They were also the site of origin of several notable modern Jewish writers, the most famous of them being Shmuel Yosef Agnon (in Hebrew), Itzik Manger (in Yidish), Joseph Roth and Paul Celan (in German) and Bruno Schulz (in Polish). Additional individuals of note are Jews of Galician and Bukovinian origin who made notable contributions to several of the arts, scholars, statesmen and scientists.

 

 

 

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Maps

карта Galicia and Bukovina are two adjacent regions, located on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. Today the area is divided between independent Ukraine, Poland and Romania.

The name Galicia is derived from “Halicz,” the name of a town which was the center of the medieval Halych-Volynian principality, initially a part of Kievan Rus'. In the 1340s, the largest part of the Halych principality was a part of the Polish Kingdom. In 1772, after the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Galicia was annexed from Poland and became Austrian Crown land, under the name "The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria." The area of Malopolska, around Krakow, was incorporated into Austria as a result of the third partition of Poland, but was then transferred to the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw in 1809. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the town of Krakow and a small surrounding area was made an independent republic under the protection of the three partitioning powers (Austria, Prussia and Russia). Following the outbreak of revolution in 1846, the area was annexed by Austria and incorporated into Galicia.

 In 1918, Galicia was reclaimed by the independent Polish Republic, although a short-lived Western-Ukrainian People's Republic existed in Eastern Galicia in 1918-19. In 1939, Eastern Galicia was annexed by the Soviet Union and became a part of Soviet Ukraine. Since 1991 this area has belonged to the Independent Republic of Ukraine.  

The rivers San, Dniester, Seret and Prut flow through the region. The capital of the area is Lviv (Lemberg, Lwόw). Other major cities are Brody and Tarnopol in the west, Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanislawow) in the south and Krakow in Western Galicia. The Jewish population in the area grew rapidly over the long 19th century, from 178,000 in 1772 to 811,000 in 1900.

Bukovina is a historical region on the northern slopes of the Carpathians and is currently divided between Romania and Ukraine. It is first mentioned in 1388 as part of the   Principality of Moldavia. Bukovina’s name is derived from the Ukrainian word for 'Beech tree,' a plant distinct in the landscape of the region. Bukovina was occupied by the Austrian Empire in 1774, and in 1787 was incorporated into "The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria." In 1849 it became a separate Austrian 'Crown Land' – the Duchy of Bukovina, with Czernowitz (now Chernovtsy) as its capital.  After World War I Romania took control of the region. In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union. Today, Northern Bukovina is a part of Ukraine and Southern Bukovina is a part of Romania.

Jews have lived in Bukovina since the 14th Century. During World War II most of Bukovina’s Jews were deported to Transnistria and many did not return. 

The Geo-Political history of Galicia and Bukovina has left us with many maps of the area in many different languages, the wide variety of which demonstrates different methods of map-making. The earliest maps of the region we were able to obtain go back as far as the 14th century.. Some of the maps in the database depict the entire region, while others focus on smaller areas and cities.

 

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You can search the map database by the title of the map or by the name of community. The title of each map describes the area depicted and the year in which the map was drawn. For example: Galicia – 1847

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Наша діяльність

Єврейська Галичина та Буковина має на меті документацію та поширення інформації про головні аспекти єврейського життя в цих регіонах, як фізично, так і академічно. Наразі наша діяльність концентрується на чотирьох головних сферах:

* Розбудова безкоштовної онлайн бази даних про єврейську історії Галичини та Буковини.

* Щорічні польові експедиції, які документують матеріальні залишки єврейського життя.

*Збереження культурної та равіністичної спадщини цих єврейських спільнот.

*Стипендії для ізраїльських та українських студентів, що досліджують важливі теми для здобуття кандидатського ступеня

*Читання академічних курсів про єврейську культуру Галичини та Буковини в українських університетах. 

 

Фундація “Людмер” для стипендій в Україні

"Єврейська Галичина та Буковина" пропонує стипендії для аспірантів та молодих дослідників з Ізраїлю та України для дослідницьких проектів, які пов'язані з єврейською історією регіону. Стипендія для українських дослідників також забезпечує їхнє перебування в Ізраїлі протягом одного року для роботи над їхніми проектами. Ми вважаємо ці стипендії дуже важливими і намагаємося встановити провідну роль ізраїльських наукових інституцій в дослідженні спільнот Галичини та Буковини. Фундація вважає ці стипендії дуже важливими і намагається встановити провідну роль ізраїльських наукових інституцій в дослідженні спільнот Галичини та Буковини.

 В 2010 році двоє українських студентів з Українського Католицького Університету отримали стипендії на проведення дисертаційних досліджень. За підтримки фундації вони провели 2011-2012 рік на стажуванні в Єврейському Університеті в Єрусалимі, Ізраїль. В 2012 році дослідник з України отримав пост-докторську стипендію на проведення дослідження, яке стосується єврейської культури Буковини.

Читайте нижче про їхні дисертаційні дослідження.

  Владислава Москалець

Магістр історії, 2010, Український Католицький Університет

Академічні інтереси охоплюють модерну єврейську історію в Центрально-Східній Європі, історію повсякденного життя та ментальності. Волонтер Центру Міської Історії Центрально-Східної Європи

Тема дисертації:

Поміж традицією та змінами: єврейські спільноти Борислава і Дрогобича, 1850-1900

Метою дослідження є прослідкувати процес змін, які пройшли єврейські економічні еліти Дрогобича та Борислава, щоб зрозуміти трансформацію та модернізацію групи на протязі трьох поколінь. Читати більше

Публікації:
Декларації лояльності до імперії як елемент ідентичності єврейських підприємців Дрогобича (абстракт).  Читати
Благодійна діяльність єврейських підприємців Дрогобича і Борислава, як індикатор модерності  Читати
 

Абстракти конференцій:

Поширення сіонізму серед єврейських робітників нафтової промисловості, як результат динамічних змін єврейської ідентичності.  Читати
Зміна стратегій благодійності в єврейській спільноті Дрогобича в 1860-1900 роках . Читати
 

 

 Домініка Ранк

Бакалавр історії, 2007, Український Католицький Університет, Магістр історії, 2010, Український Католицький Університет, спеціалізація "Нова історія Центрально-Східної Європи"

Тема дисертації::

 

"Модернізація єврейської спільноти міста Броди в другій половині ХІХ-го століття"

This study traces the processes of modernization in the Jewish community of Brody from the second half of the 19th century until the beginning of WWI. Special emphasis is placed on the social and cultural changes within the community as compared to general regional trends, with particular attention to Lviv as the central city in the region and as the one which most clearly exhibits the formation of the basic political, social, and cultural trends which characterized the process of modernisation in Galicia.   Read more

Conference abstracts: 

From political settlement to the self-identificationwith the Polish nation. History of the Jewish community of the city of Lviv from 1873 till 1914. Read

Формування образу міста Броди як «гетто» в творчості Hermann Menkes та Leo Herzberg-Fränkel. Читати

Between Austrian Liberalism and Polish Federalism. A comparison of the formation of new cultural and political identities among the Jewish population of Lviv and Brody in the second half of the 19th century. Read

  Зорницький Андрій

Житомирський Державний Університет імю Івана Франка, кафедра іноземних мов, 2004

Здобув ступінь кандидата наук в 2009 році

Академічні інтереси: їдиш та історія мови, мовні контакти

Дослідження: "Лексична  система мови їдиш: гібридизація та мовна інтерференція"Read more

Publications:  "The Yiddish Sonnets by M. Freed: notes on the history of literary Yiddish in Bukovina" (abstract).  Read

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Єврейські спільноти Борислава і Дрогобича в другій половині 19 століття, як приклад зростання єврейського середнього класу

Community: 
Attached files: 

Єврейські спільноти Борислава і Дрогобича в другій половині 19 століття, як приклад зростання єврейського середнього класу

Community: 
Attached files: 

Поширення сіонізму серед єврейських робітників нафтової промисловості, як результат динамічних змін єврейської ідентичності (абстракт)

Community: 
Attached files: 

Благодійна діяльність єврейських підприємців Дрогобича і Борислава, як індикатор модерності (абстракт)

Community: 
Attached files: 

Благодійна діяльність єврейських підприємців Дрогобича і Борислава, як індикатор модерності (абстракт)

Community: 
Attached files: 

Декларації лояльності до імперії, як елемент ідентичності єврейських підприємців Дрогобича

Community: 
Attached files: 

Зміна стратегій благодійності в єврейській спільноті Дрогобича в 1860-1900 роках

Community: 
Attached files: 

Field School 2013 to Bolechow and Pechenezhin

Community: 

 

The fifth expedition to East Galicia of the Association was composed of university and yeshiva students from Israel and Russia, including students from the “Siach Yitzchak” Hesder Yeshiva, Hebrew University students and students of Jewish Studies from the St. Petersburg and Moscow State Universities. It was guided by Drs. Boris Khaimovich and Ilia Lurie of the Hebrew University and Mrs. Marina Brook of St. Petersburg University.

The destination of this expedition was two towns in which large Jewish cemeteries have survived: Bolekhiv (Bolechów) and Pechenizhyn (Peczenizyn).

Pechenizhyn was a small town in the possession of a nobleman. We know that Jews resided there as early as the 18th century, since the wooden synagogue in the town, complete with its spectacular wall paintings, dates to this time. The population of the town – both Jewish and non-Jewish – grew significantly following the discovery of oil wells at the end of the 19th century. In 1890 there were 2,224 Jews in Pechenizhyn (out of 6,838 inhabitants), but with the decrease in oil production the Jewish population of the town dwindled, with many leaving for other locations in Galicia or abroad. During the Holocaust the Jews of Pechenizhyn were deported to the Kołomyja ghetto, where they died together with the Jews of Kolomyja.

 The only witness to the former Jewish life of this town is an old cemetery, situated on the hill across the river from Pechenizhyn. Decades of neglect led to large parts of the cemetery being grown over by plants and trees; therefore cleaning and preparation work was undertaken before the arrival of the expedition. This enabled the approach of expedition members to the entire cemetery and the documentation of all of the surviving tombstones. All in all, 700 tombstones, dating from the mid-18th century until 1939, were documented. Many of these had sunk into the ground, and expedition members were often forced to dig them out and remove layers of greenery, ash and weeds in order to document them. Some had fallen over and broken over the years and needed to be turned over in order to reveal the decorated side of the tombstone. As a result of the work undertaken in the Pechenizhyn cemetery, we have established that it is the largest and best preserved of the Jewish cemeteries in Pokutie (the Kolomyja region). It enables a rare view into the unique social and artistic life of the Jews of the region, from the 18th century until the Holocaust. Different artistic trends, representative of the Jews of Galicia in different periods, are well expressed in the tombstones documented by the expedition.

 Bolekhiv, to which the expedition turned after completing its work in Pechenizhyn, is a representative of a completely different type of Jewish settlement. Bolekhiv was a relatively large city, established at the beginning of the 17th century, which served as an important center of social and economic life in the Dolina region. Jews inhabited the city from its inception, and during the second half of the 19th century comprised about 75% of its population (3,323 out of 4,237 inhabitants in 1890). Among the Jewish inhabitants of Bolekhiv were those involved in major trade and industry (particularly tanning), scholars and famous rabbis. Jews played an extremely important role in the city’s economic and public life, and in 1874 Israel Hauptman, the Jewish owner of the city’s tanning factory, was elected mayor. One of the most notable figures in Bolechów’s Jewish community was the wine trader and public figure Dov Ber Birkenthal (1723-1805), the author of a memoir which serves as an important source of data regarding Jewish life in the Polish-Lithuanian kingdom during its final years. The Jewish Enlightenment and processes of modernization reached Bolechów in the 19th century, finding expression in the activities of a local chapter of the Enlightenment movement, which managed to take over communal leadership, and in the establishment of the progressive Jewish school in the city in the 1850s. Alongside these developments, the majority of the Jewish population of Bolekhiv continued its traditional lifestyle and was even influenced by the spread of Hasidism. In the city center, near the marketplace, where Jewish life was centered, a large fortress-like synagogue was built at the beginning of the 19th century; near it operated several halls of study and Hasidic kloizes.  

Following the killing of all of Bolekhiv’s Jews by the Nazis, not many testimonies to the formerly vibrant Jewish life of the city remained. The large synagogue served as a worker’s club and the old cemetery was targeted by acts of vandalism by local inhabitants. Only recently have various Jewish organizations initiated the fencing in of the cemetery and the refurbishing of the synagogue.

The purpose of the expedition in Bolekhiv was the full documentation of the tombstones in the cemetery and the identification and documentation of locations connected to the Jewish life of the city.

Already on the first day of work in Bolechów, it became evident that the cemetery was a large one, much more so than implied by the descriptions of previous scholars (expedition members estimated that around 1,500 tombstones remained). Many tombstones were sunk in the ground and covered by ash and weeds, some were overturned. The members of the expedition took great pains to uncover and document these. Among the tombstones documented were those of Dov Ber Birkenthal and his family, those of various famous rabbis and scholars, that of Israel Hauptman and others. Many of the tombstones testify to the high cultural and artistic level the community maintained from the end of the 17th century and through the beginning of the 20th. They comprise an unparalleled artistic collection, no less important than collections from Jewish cemeteries in central Europe, both in quantity and in quality. The expedition documented about half of the tombstones (about 750)  in the cemetery and plans to return next year to document the rest.

As mentioned above, the city was also surveyed in order to identify significant sites relating to the city’s Jewish past. Based on testimonies of Bolekhiv descendants and veteran locals, a number of buildings formerly owned by Jews or housing Jewish institutions were located and documented.

All of the findings of the expedition, including descriptions and pictures, will be uploaded to the website in the near future. 

Bolechow cemetery  

 

 Pechenezhin cemetery

Site collections: 

Field School 2013 to Bolechow and Pechenezhin

Community: 

 

The fifth expedition to East Galicia of the Association was composed of university and yeshiva students from Israel and Russia, including students from the “Siach Yitzchak” Hesder Yeshiva, Hebrew University students and students of Jewish Studies from the St. Petersburg and Moscow State Universities. It was guided by Drs. Boris Khaimovich and Ilia Lurie of the Hebrew University and Mrs. Marina Brook of St. Petersburg University.

The destination of this expedition was two towns in which large Jewish cemeteries have survived: Bolekhiv (Bolechów) and Pechenizhyn (Peczenizyn).

Pechenizhyn was a small town in the possession of a nobleman. We know that Jews resided there as early as the 18th century, since the wooden synagogue in the town, complete with its spectacular wall paintings, dates to this time. The population of the town – both Jewish and non-Jewish – grew significantly following the discovery of oil wells at the end of the 19th century. In 1890 there were 2,224 Jews in Pechenizhyn (out of 6,838 inhabitants), but with the decrease in oil production the Jewish population of the town dwindled, with many leaving for other locations in Galicia or abroad. During the Holocaust the Jews of Pechenizhyn were deported to the Kołomyja ghetto, where they died together with the Jews of Kolomyja.

 The only witness to the former Jewish life of this town is an old cemetery, situated on the hill across the river from Pechenizhyn. Decades of neglect led to large parts of the cemetery being grown over by plants and trees; therefore cleaning and preparation work was undertaken before the arrival of the expedition. This enabled the approach of expedition members to the entire cemetery and the documentation of all of the surviving tombstones. All in all, 700 tombstones, dating from the mid-18th century until 1939, were documented. Many of these had sunk into the ground, and expedition members were often forced to dig them out and remove layers of greenery, ash and weeds in order to document them. Some had fallen over and broken over the years and needed to be turned over in order to reveal the decorated side of the tombstone. As a result of the work undertaken in the Pechenizhyn cemetery, we have established that it is the largest and best preserved of the Jewish cemeteries in Pokutie (the Kolomyja region). It enables a rare view into the unique social and artistic life of the Jews of the region, from the 18th century until the Holocaust. Different artistic trends, representative of the Jews of Galicia in different periods, are well expressed in the tombstones documented by the expedition.

 Bolekhiv, to which the expedition turned after completing its work in Pechenizhyn, is a representative of a completely different type of Jewish settlement. Bolekhiv was a relatively large city, established at the beginning of the 17th century, which served as an important center of social and economic life in the Dolina region. Jews inhabited the city from its inception, and during the second half of the 19th century comprised about 75% of its population (3,323 out of 4,237 inhabitants in 1890). Among the Jewish inhabitants of Bolekhiv were those involved in major trade and industry (particularly tanning), scholars and famous rabbis. Jews played an extremely important role in the city’s economic and public life, and in 1874 Israel Hauptman, the Jewish owner of the city’s tanning factory, was elected mayor. One of the most notable figures in Bolechów’s Jewish community was the wine trader and public figure Dov Ber Birkenthal (1723-1805), the author of a memoir which serves as an important source of data regarding Jewish life in the Polish-Lithuanian kingdom during its final years. The Jewish Enlightenment and processes of modernization reached Bolechów in the 19th century, finding expression in the activities of a local chapter of the Enlightenment movement, which managed to take over communal leadership, and in the establishment of the progressive Jewish school in the city in the 1850s. Alongside these developments, the majority of the Jewish population of Bolekhiv continued its traditional lifestyle and was even influenced by the spread of Hasidism. In the city center, near the marketplace, where Jewish life was centered, a large fortress-like synagogue was built at the beginning of the 19th century; near it operated several halls of study and Hasidic kloizes.  

Following the killing of all of Bolekhiv’s Jews by the Nazis, not many testimonies to the formerly vibrant Jewish life of the city remained. The large synagogue served as a worker’s club and the old cemetery was targeted by acts of vandalism by local inhabitants. Only recently have various Jewish organizations initiated the fencing in of the cemetery and the refurbishing of the synagogue.

The purpose of the expedition in Bolekhiv was the full documentation of the tombstones in the cemetery and the identification and documentation of locations connected to the Jewish life of the city.

Already on the first day of work in Bolechów, it became evident that the cemetery was a large one, much more so than implied by the descriptions of previous scholars (expedition members estimated that around 1,500 tombstones remained). Many tombstones were sunk in the ground and covered by ash and weeds, some were overturned. The members of the expedition took great pains to uncover and document these. Among the tombstones documented were those of Dov Ber Birkenthal and his family, those of various famous rabbis and scholars, that of Israel Hauptman and others. Many of the tombstones testify to the high cultural and artistic level the community maintained from the end of the 17th century and through the beginning of the 20th. They comprise an unparalleled artistic collection, no less important than collections from Jewish cemeteries in central Europe, both in quantity and in quality. The expedition documented about half of the tombstones (about 750)  in the cemetery and plans to return next year to document the rest.

As mentioned above, the city was also surveyed in order to identify significant sites relating to the city’s Jewish past. Based on testimonies of Bolekhiv descendants and veteran locals, a number of buildings formerly owned by Jews or housing Jewish institutions were located and documented.

All of the findings of the expedition, including descriptions and pictures, will be uploaded to the website in the near future. 

Bolechow cemetery  

 

 Pechenezhin cemetery

Site collections: 

Велика спадщина

Галичина та Буковина були важливими єврейськими центрами з ХІІІ століття і стали домівкою для понад мільйона євреїв, з унікальними культурними особливостями та яскравим інтелектуальним і духовним життям. З цих регіонів вийшли видатні єврейські мислителі, рабини та хасидські цадики(?), що створили впливові тексти та інституції, які мали довготривалий вплив на єврейський світ. Вчені Тори і єврейські інтелектуали Галичини та Буковини, хоча й міцно закорінені в єврейській традиції та навчанні,  були відомими завдяки своїй терпимості та відкритості до модерності. Цей єврейський світ у своєму розквіті був знищений під час Голокосту.

Цей розділ пропонує погляд на славний єврейський світ та його залишки в сьогоднішній Україні та Польщі.

Підрозділами є:

Історія:

Тут можна почитати загальний огляд та статті про історію євреїв Галичини та Буковини.

Карти:

Тут можна подивитися на нашу колекцію історичних карт. Ми пропонуємо загальні карти всього регіону та карти окремих міст.

Організації:

Тут знаходиться інформація про єврейські організації Галичини та Буковини.

Спільноти:

Ми пропонуємо близько 500 сторінок, що розповідають про історію євреїв в кожній спільноті, а також посилання на інші сторінки для подального пошуку.

Мацеви:

Ми маємо велику колекцію зображень мацев зібрану під час наших польових шкіл на кладовищах Галичини. Можна подивитися фотографію та епітафію на кожній мацеві.

Вибрана бібліографія:

Цей підрозділ містить описи наукових праць і статей, які стосуються єврейської історії та культури в Галичині та Буковині. Цей підрозділ постійно розширюється з появою найновіших публікацій у галузі.  

 

Between Galicia and Eretz Israel - presentation

Jewish Community in Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages and Modern Time - PowerPoint Presentation

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