Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Jews in the 18th century

 

The exact beginning of the settlement of Jews in Bohorodchany is unknown, but documentary data about the Jewish community exists from the early eighteenth century. In 1717, the Jews of Bohorodczany and the adjacent villages paid a head tax of 756 gold coins (Pinkas Hakehilot, 71).

The Polish census of 1764 gives more detailed information on the Jewish population of Bohorodchany (Stampfer, 122-3). The community (kahal) included 646 Jews of both genders and 26 infants under the age of one year. 543 Jews with 21 infants lived in the town of Bohorodchany itself, and the remaining 103 were dispersed throughout the surrounding villages according to the following breakdown:

Sadzawka - 8
Stare Bohorodczany - 6
Głębokie - 8
Zwiniacz - 6
Chmielówka - 2
Rosólna - 25 (and two infants)
Kosmacz - 6
Grabowiec - 7
Pochówka - 5
Roholina Górna - 8 (and two infants)
Roholina Dolna - 11
Lachowce - 11 (and one infant)

The Bohorodchany community with 646 Jews was the ninth in size among 18 communities in the Kołomyia district (powiat). While the four biggest communities included slightly more than a thousand Jews each (Nadworna - 1,196, Śniatyn - 1,123, Kołomyia - 1,059, Kuty - 1,013), and two others slightly less than a thousand Jews (Horodenka - 956, Zabłatow - 946), the Bohorodchany and Gwozdzia (659) communities were considered medium sized communities. All other communities included less than 500 Jews (Stampfer, 120-5).

In 1756, there were 314 houses with 1,134 residents in the town (Istoriia Bohorodchaniv, 82).

In 1785 a school for Jews that was part of the Hertz Homberg educational network was established in Bohorodchany. However, it closed after several years (Pinkas Hakehilot, 71). In 1789, a German school was opened in Bohorodchany, but it is unlikely that any Jews studied there (Istoriia Bohorodchaniv, 82).

See: Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Jews in the 19th and early 20th centuries

Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Jews in the 19th and early 20th centuries

 

In the 1870s, Jews constituted about a half of the town's population of 4,595 and were the largest ethno-religious group, counting 2,009 people. At the same time, Greek-Catholic Ukrainians numbered 1,788 and Roman Catholics, mostly Poles, 800 (Słownik 1:287). In 1870, there existed in Bohorodchany a pharmacy, a brewery, a distillery and three small tanning workshops (Słownik 1:287). The single class primary school was transformed into a two class school in 1868 (Istoriia Bohorodchaniv, 82).

In the beginning of the twentieth century, there were two state schools for boys and for girls in Bohorodchany, as well as Polish and Jewish kindergartens (Misto Bohorodytsi, 6). A school for Jews was established in Bohorodchany by the Baron Hirsch foundation in early 1897 (Ha-magid, no. 28, 23 July 1899, p. 238; no. 30, 26 July 1900, p. 349; no. 22, 6 June 1901, p. 247). In 1906-1907 the Baron Hirsch school had 206 students under the direction of three teachers of general studies and one teacher of Jewish studies (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). A Hebrew school was opened in Bohorodchany in 1908 by "The Union of Hebrew Teachers of Austria." In 1911 it had fifty-five students and one teacher, I. Sparer (Gelber, Toldot, 2:725). In 1909 there was also a Jewish school for girls with Hebrew as its language of instruction (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

In 1910, there were 4,378 residents in Bohorodchany: 1,930 Jews, 1,647 Ukrainians, 795 Poles and 6 Germans (Misto Bohorodytsi, 6). There were eight restaurants, two hotels, four tailors' workshops, two tin workshops, five blacksmiths, six furriers, and ten shoemakers. The only pharmacy in the town belonged to a Jew Y. Gertner (Misto Bohorodytsi, 6, cf. 22-32).

In 1896, Rabbi Schreier established in Bohorodchany a local committee of the Tarnow based Association "Ahavat Zion" and became its chairman. His deputy was Tzvi Hirsh Rapoport. Members of the committee included Mendel Schumir, Gabriel Shwalb, Shmuel Meir Waldhorn and Josef Lautman (Gelber, Toldot, 1:337, n. 15).  

Most probably, this committee was identical to the Palestino-centric society "Ezrat Israel," the establishment of which was announced in October 1896. It was set up as a branch of the "Zion" society in Lwow, with the purpose of taking part in the establishment of a Galician settlement in Palestine and included fifty members at its founding (Ha-magid, no. 40, 15 October 1896, p. 320). Its delegates took part in the Fourth conference of the Galician Lovers of Zion (Hovevei Zion) Congress in October 1896 in Lwow (Gelber, Toldot, 1:222; Ha-magid, no. 42, 29 October 1896, p. 333). The existence of the society was also mentioned in 1899, a member of its board was Tzvi Rapoport (Ha-magid, no. 23, 15 June 1899, p. 185). In 1898, Josef Lautman from Bohorodchany was elected to the regional Zionist Committee established by the conference of the Zionists of the Stanislawow region (Gelber, Toldot, 1:399). In 1899, the Zionist association of Bohorodchany was one of the seventy-five Zionist associations of Galicia (Gelber, Toldot, 2:432).

A branch of the religious Zionist movement Mizrahi also existed in Bohorodchany before World War I, one of thirteen Mizrahi branches in Galicia (Gelber, Toldot, 2:799).

See: Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Jews in the interwar period

Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Jews in the interwar period

 

During the First World War, Bohorodchany was occupied by the Russian army in 1915. An intense battle took place in the town itself and the front line went for some time along the Bystritsa Solotvinska River ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 83). As a result of the fighting and poor conditions, typhus and cholera epidemics broke out in the region (Momot, "Istoriia Bohorodchaniv"). The Russian occupation was a disaster for the Jews of Bohorodchany, like other places in Galicia. The Russian Cossack forces entering the town perpetrated an anti-Jewish pogrom. Several Jews, including children, were murdered, women were raped, and a large amount of property was plundered. Several women were brutally raped in a synagogue where they sought refuge (Pinkas Hakehilot, 71; CAHJP, HM2/9446.4).

At the end of the war, Bohorodchany became part of the short-lived West Ukrainian People's Republic, the capital of which was situated in Stanislawow. However, in May 1919 the town was conquered by the Polish army. After an unsuccessful attempt by the Red Army to conquer Galicia during the Soviet-Polish War of 1920 the region became a part of the newly established independent Polish State.

During the wars of 1915-1921, the population of Bohorodchany dropped significantly. According to the Polish census of 1921, there were only 2,615 residents in the town, of them 1,286 Greek Catholics (Ukrainians), 730 Jews, 593 Roman Catholics (mostly Poles), and 6 Protestants (Germans) (Misto Bohorodytsi, 6; Momot, "Istoriia Bohorodchaniv").

The interwar years witnessed constant tension between the Polish authorities and the Ukrainian population. In April 1921 and in the summer of 1929, large anti-Polish strikes broke out ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 84-5).

In the 1930s, the majority of Hasidic Jews in Bohorodchany were divided between two Hasidic courts, Vizhnits and Stretin (H. Hasten, I Shall Not Die, 7). One of the descendents of the Stretin dynasty, R. Shlomo Langner, even established his court in Bohorodchany. However he later moved to Rohatyn (Alfasi, 1:350). There were also non-Hasidic Jews in the town (H. Hasten, I Shall Not Die, 7).

In the interwar era, there were five synagogues in Bohorodchany: the Great Synagogue (Groyse shul), Beit Midrash, the "General" Synagogue (Algemayner shul), the Vizhnits Hasidic synagogue and the Stretin Hasidic synagogue. All of them were situated in the shulhoyf (synagogue courtyard) which also included the Jewish bathhouse (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 346, map after p. 17).

In 1929, a charitable organization Gmilut Hasadim which granted loans without interest was established, however, its functions were limited (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

In the interwar period, there were two state schools in the town, a six grade school for boys and a seven grade school for girls. In both of them the language of instruction was Polish. A petition that demanded the introduction of Ukrainian into the schools in 1925 was rejected ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 84). Some Jews studied in these schools where classes in the Jewish religion were taught there by Nadler (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 7-8). Most Jewish schoolboys attended a traditional heder in the afternoon (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 8). Additionally, classes in general studies were held by the Jewish Union of Public and High Schools of Lwow in 1923-1924 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). In the mid-1930s courses in Hebrew were offered in Bohorodczany by a local teacher Landau (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72; M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 8).

Zionist activity of different kinds continued in Bohorodchany in the interwar period. In 1923, a branch of Hitahdut-Poalei Zion was established, and in 1934 it had 36 members (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). In 1931, a branch of the Revisionist movement appeared (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). In 1939 the Revisionists established a branch of the Brit Ha-Hayal (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). In the 1930s, a Zionist youth group functioned in the city (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). In the 1935 elections to the nineteenth Zionist Congress, the General Zionists received 31 ballots, the Mizrahi 31 votes, and the Eretz Israel List, 96 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). There existed also a soccer team Maccabi (Misto Bohorodytsi, 47).

In 1920, a local organization of the Communist Party of Eastern Galicia was established in Bohorodchany ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 85). It was active in the 1920s and 1930s and had an influence on the local population. A number of young Jews in Bohorodczany were among its members and sympathizers. In a trial against the Communists held in Stanislawów in 1938, several people from Bohorodchany, among them one Jew (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72), were accused of belonging to the outlawed party and were sentenced to jail ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 85).

 

See: Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Holocaust

Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Holocaust

 

With the outbreak of World War II, Ukrainian farmers streamed into the town on the 16-18 of September 1939. Armed with sticks and axes, they called out anti-Semitic slogans. They also perpetrated hostilities against the retreating Polish soldiers, and attempted to capture their weapons. Unlike other locations, these events did not result in a pogrom (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). As a result of the Soviet-Nazi non-aggression pact, the Red Army entered Bohorodchany on September 19, 1939 ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 85). According to one Jewish memoir, the soldiers of the Red Army "stripped our shops and squares of anything of value" (H. Hasten, I Shall Not Die, 7-8).

Together with the rest of Eastern Galicia, Bohorodchany was annexed by the USSR and became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In January 1940, the town became the administrative center of a district (raion) ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 85). The Soviet conquest led to restrictions in the business and political life as private enterprises were nationalized and all non-Communist political and associational activities prohibited. The Soviet occupation also influenced the style of life in the town. According to Hart N. Hasten's memoirs, "Men no longer wore neckties. Women got rid of their hats and put on headscarves. And the streets always stank of garbage" (H. Hasten, I Shall Not Die, 8).

The new authorities converted some Polish institutions into the Soviet ones Both schools became seven-grade Ukrainian schools. Additionally, a club, library, health clinic and pharmacy all became state run institutions ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 86; M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 12-3).

Despite the fact that they prohibited private trade and thus harmed the economic situation of many Jews, the new authorities, received a significant degree of Jewish support. In Bohorodchany, for example, Ber Hasten, Wolf Friedman, Leib Lappe and other Jews joined the Soviet militia (police) and contributed to maintenance of order (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 11, 14; H. Hasten, I Shall Not Die, 10).

On June 27, 1941, Bohorodchany was occupied by the German forces that invaded the Soviet Union ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 86). Only a handful of Jews, among them the Hasten, Friedman, Lappe families, Shimshon Tabak, succeeded in escaping and arrived safely to the remote regions of the Soviet Union (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 13-7).

On June 16, 1942, 1,200 Jews from Bohorodchany were brought to Stanislawow and murdered by the Ukrainian police at the Rudolf's mill (H. Hasten, I Shall Not Die, 309).

 

See: Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - after WWII

Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - after WWII

 

On March 31, 1944, a Soviet tank squadron attempted to conquer Bohorodchany but was pushed back by the Germans. The town was finally liberated by the Soviets on July 28, 1944 ("Istoriia Bohorodchaniv," 86).

Only fifty or so Bohorodchany Jews survived the Holocaust in the area. Among the survivors were the Rothenberg and Luster families, Benjamin Reuben, Buzsi Koenigsberg, Naftali Gold, Koppelman, Chaim Bru, David Schmertzler, and others (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 350-5).

No Jews returned to Bohorodchany after World War II.

In the Soviet years the synagogues were destroyed and the Jewish cemetery almost completely disappeared (Grandeur and Glory, 4).

A monument to the Bohorodczany Jews was erected in the Jewish cemetery in Ivano-Frankivsk by the Hasten and Halpern families in August 2002 (see photographs).

See views of Bohorodczany and views of its Jewish cemetery, photographed in 2009.

Definition: Starosta

A Starosta was a royal official in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who was in charge of governing a city or a region belonging to the crown.

Definition: Potocki

The Potocki family was one of the most important Polish magnate families.

Definition: Podskarbi nadworny koronny

Podskarbi nadworny koronny was a royal official in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in charge of the finances of the Polish King.

Bohorodczany (Brotchin) - Rabbis & Rebbes

The first known rabbi of Bohorodchany is mentioned in 1720 and was Rabbi Shimshon Ha-Levi Heller, a son of Rabbi Avraham, a descendant of the famous Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipman Heller. His son, R. Meir, inherited his position and was mentioned as the Rabbi of Bohorodchany in 1750 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

In the 1780s, another representative of the Heller family took a religious position in the Bohorodchany community. It was Rabbi Avraham Noah Halevi Heller (d. 1786), the son of Rabbi Aharon Moshe Halevi Heller (1740-1795) and brother of the founder of the Zbarazh Hasidic dynasty Rabbi Meshulam Faibish Halevi Heller. After being a scholar in famous kloyz in Brody and serving as the rabbi of Dolina, he became the preacher (magid meisharim) in Bohorodchany in the last years of his life (Alfasi, 1:179). He wrote the book Zrizuta de-avraham, a commentary on the Torah and Pirkei Avot (Piekarz, Be-yemei, 39, 168).

Around 1800, the Rabbi of Bohorodchany was R. Yitzhak Frenkel (Wunder 4:289).

In the first half of the nineteenth century, a grandson of the first Zbarazh admor Rabbi Meshulam Faivish Halevi Heller, named after him, R. Meshulam Faivish Heller son of Barukh Yitshak (1800-1840), established his court in Bohorodchany. He was an important figure in the Hasidic world, a student of Rabbi Haim from Czernowitz, and the author of the book Sfat Emet which was published in 1880 in Kolomyia (Alfasi 1:168).

In the 1870s, the rabbi of Bohorodchany was Rabbi Meir Hacohen Rapoport (first mentioned in 1870) (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

He was succeeded by Rabbi Uri Shraga (Faivel) Schreier. Rabbi Schreier was one of the most prominent adherents of Palestino-centric politics and of Zionism among Orthodox rabbis (Gelber, Toldot, 1:347) and served as the rabbi of Bohorodchany until his death in 1898 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

In the beginning of the 20th century, Rabbi Hillel Langerman served as a moreh tzedek. He founded the yeshiva "Torat Haim" in 1905 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

After the death of Rabbi Schreier, R. Pinhas Halevi Horwitz was elected to be the town's new rabbi in 1898. He also held pro-Zionist positions (Ha-magid, no. 1, 5 January 1899, p. 5). Rabbi Pinhas Halevi Horwitz served as the rabbi and the head of the local yeshiva "Torat Haim" until his death in 1920 (Ohalei Shem, 223-4; Pinkas Hakehilot, 72).

After the passing of Rabbi Horwitz in 1920, a dispute broke out over the succession process. This conflict was resolved only in 1927, after the arbitration of three rabbis from outside of Bohorodczany (Pinkas Hakehilot, 72). For a period of time in the early 1920s the rabbi of Bohorodchany was R. Nisan Haim Rosenbaum from the Kretshnef branch of the Nadworna Hasidic dynasty; later he moved to Drohobycz (Alfasi, 1:84, no. 63; M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 6-7). The rabbinic post was then filled by Rabbi Nebenzal (M. Hasten, Mark My Words, 6-7).

Definition: opryshky

Opryshky -  A popular rebellion in Galicia and Carpathia in the 18th century.

Definition: Oleksa Dovbush

Oleksa Dovbush (1700-1745) The most prominent leader of the opryshky movement, headed a powerful organization  which acted in the Carpathian Mountains, Galicia, Bukovina.   He is a hero of numerous legends, among them legends about his meetings with the Besht. The Fearsome Inn (1967) by Isaac Bashevis-Singer retells legends about Dovbush's wife, a witch Dobushova.

Definition: Kloyz in Brody

 

The kloyz in Brody was a private house of study intended for a small group of elite "scholars." It existed in the middle of the 18th century.

Zrizuta de-avraham by Rabbi Avraham Noah Halevi Heller

 

The book Zrizuta de-avraham by Rabbi Avraham Noah Halevi Heller (d. 1786) was first published in 1900. In 1938, an enlarged edition with previously unpublished chapters was prepared in Poland, but the German invasion halted the printing. The manuscript was subsequently brought to New York and published there in 1952 (Piekarz, Be-yemei, 40). Zrizuta de-avraham, according to Mendel Piekarz, "is very important for the understanding of the spiritual climate of the time and the emergence of Hasidism and in the area of its growth" (Piekarz, Be-yemei, 39).

The book includes a positive mention of the Besht. This lone comment allowed the famous scholar Gershom Scholem to state that "rabbi Avraham Heller is the first member of the kloyz in Brody, who's positive attitude towards the Besht [in his lifetime] is known" (Scholem, "Dmuto historit," 30). However, Mendel Piekarz shows that Scholem was not right because he mistakenly assumed that Zrizuta de-avraham was written in 1759 during the Besht's lifetime. In reality, the book was composed after 1780, some twenty years after the Besht's death (Piekarz, Be-yemei, 39-41).

Definition: Mizrahi movement

Mizrahi (abbreviation of merkaz ruhani - spiritual center) - Orthodox Zionist movement. Established in 1902 by Rabbi Yaakov Reines.

Definition: Communist Party of Eastern Galicia

 

The Communist Party of Eastern Galicia was established in 1919. In 1923 it was renamed the Communist Party of Western Ukraine.

Nadworna - general information

Community: 

 

Nadworna was first mentioned as a settlement with the rights of a town in 1591. It belonged to the Kuropat family, whose castle was situated two kilometers to the southwest in the neighboring village of Pniów. In 1745, it passed to the Cetner family and in the late nineteenth century it was mortgaged in the Boden Credit Anstalt in Vienna at which point it became state property (link).

The first Roman Catholic Church in Nadworna was established in 1609. A stone church was built in its place in 1838. In the nineteenth century there also existed a Greek-Catholic (Uniate) Church in Nadworna (Słownik, 6:866).

Further reading: Nadworna - Jews in the 18th century

Nadworna - Jews in the 18th century

Community: 

 

A Jewish community first appeared in Nadworna at the end of the seventeenth century (Pinkas Hakehilot, 328).

In the mid-eighteenth century there was at least one member of the Frankist movement, Laib Krysa, living in the town.  Krysa took part in the famous disputation between Frankists and Jewish rabbis in Kamenets Podolsk in 1757. After his baptism he changed his name to Dominic Antoni Krisinski (Shmuel Hübner, "Yehudah Leib Krisa," Sefer Nadvurna, 32-3 [Hebrew], 128-30 [English]).

The census of 1764 gives detailed information on the Jewish population of Nadworna (Stampfer, 124-5). The community (kahal)  included 1,196 Jews of both genders and 75 infants under the age of one year of age. 937 Jews with a total of 65 infants lived in the town of Nadworna itself and the rest (259) were dispersed among surrounding villages accordingly:
Przerosła - 4 (and one infant)
Mołotków - 3
Hwod - 9 (and two infants)
Łanczyn - 7
Kraśniany - 9 (and one infant)
Maniowa - 12
Krasne - 8
Cucyłów - 13
Nazawirów - 12 (and one infant)
Sadzawa - 6
Osławy - 5
Białosławy - 5
Strymblany - 6
Pniów - 13
Bytków - 6
Zielone - 5
Tekinki - 5
Berezów - 6
Łuczki - 7
Parysce - 6
Czarny Potok - 7
Tarnawica - 9
Pasieczne - 9
Delatyn - 87 (and 5 infants)

The Nadworna community with 1,196 Jews was the largest community in the Kołomyia district (powiat) and belonged to a group of large Galician communities (about 1,000 Jews). Its jurisdiction also spread to the town of Delatyn which had 87 Jews.

After the Austrian annexation of Galicia a school was established in Nadworna in 1785 by the enlightened Jew (maskil) Hertz Homberg as part of a larger educational network under his jurisdiction. Despite government efforts and cooperation with local maskilim it is not clear whether or not the school never opened (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329).

Further reading: Nadworna - Jews in the 19th and the early 20th centuries

Nadworna - Rabbis and Rebbes

Community: 

 

The first known rabbi of Nadworna is Rabbi Aharon son of Avigdor, mentioned in 1765 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329).

From approximately 1786, the preacher (magid meisharim) of Nadworna and its Hasidic rebbe was Rabbi Tsvi Hirsh Filip. He was an important figure in the Hasidic movement, among his pupils were Rabbi Mendel of Kosov, the founder of the famous Kosov Dynasty (Shmuel Hübner, "Di rabonim un admorim in nedverne," Sefer Nadworna, 23-4 [Heb.], 122 [Yid.]) and also the famous Rabbi Avraham David from Buczacz, who was born in Nadworna and spent his early years there (ibid, 24 [Heb.], 123 [Yid.]).

Rabbi Tsvi Hirsh was succeeded in Nadworna by his son Rabbi David Arie Leib Filip (ca. 1775-1849) (Wunder, 4:38) and by his son in law, Rabbi Yitshak from Radzivil, a son of the Magid of Zlochev (Wunder, 4:40).

In the 1830s, the town rabbi Nadworna was Rabbi Shlomo Kveler (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329).

The Nadworna Hasidic dynasty was established by Rabbi Issachar Berche (Alfasi, 1:78). He was succeeded in Nadworna by his sons, Rabbi Aharon Arie Leib and Rabbi Mordechai, known as Mordchele Nadverner (Shmuel Hübner, "Di rabonim un admorim in nedverne," Sefer Nadvurna, 24 [Heb.], 122 [Yid.]). Rabbi Aharon Arie Leib Leifer stayed in Nadworna and was succeeded by his son R. Moshe Leifer, who moved to Vienna during World War I (Alfasi, 1:78).

Around 1870, the dayan in Nadworna was Rabbi Shaul Menashe, a hasid of the rebbe from Kosov. His son is Rabbi Israel Kressel from Nadworna (Shut Shoel ve-meshiv, Shut Divrei haim).

In the second half of the nineteenth century the dayan of Nadworna was R. Yaakov Mendel Friedman. He served the community for about forty years (Wunder, 4:179). He was succeeded by his son Rabbi Yeshayahu Friedman, who served as a dayan, but was sometimes called rabbi (Wunder, 4:186; Shut Maharsham).

From the late nineteenth century and until 1914, the rabbi of Nadworna was Rabbi Nahum Burshtein (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329). He left the town in 1914, before the Russian military occupation and did not return after the end of World War I (Hübner, "Ha-rav r. Nahum Burshtein," Sefer Nadvurna, 31).

From the late nineteenth century until 1914, the dayan of Nadworna was Rabbi Yosef Steinberg (Wunder, 5:173).

During the interwar period there was no rabbi in Nadworna. The rabbi's functions were fulfilled by daynim (Shmuel Hübner, "Ha-rav r. Nahum Burshtein, abad ha-aharon be-nadvorna," Sefer Nadvurna, 31). One of them was R. Meir Weisblum (Shmuel Hübner, "Di rabonim un admorim in nedverne," Sefer Nadvurna, 26 [Heb.], 125 [Yid.]), another - R. David Rozenberg, who became dayan and moreh tzedek after 1937 (Wunder, 4:776). Another dayan was R. Zeev Wolf Lusthoyz, son-in-law of the dayan Yeshayahu Friedman. He perished in the Holocaust (Shmuel Hübner, ""Di rabonim un admorim in nedverne," Sefer Nadvurna, 23 [Heb.], 122 [Yid.]).

Nadworna - Jews in the 19th and the early 20th centuries

Community: 

In the 19th century Nadworna became the home of the famous Hasidic dynasty.

In the nineteenth century, the Jews in Nadworna were mostly merchants and craftsmen that provided services for the other residents of Nadworna and local peasantry. Jewish merchants had dominant positions in the oil industry, sawmills and windmills. Hotels, restaurants and inn keeping were also predominantly in the hands of Jewish merchants. This continued into the beginning of the twentieth century when vacation spas developed in the region (Pinkas Hakehilot, 328).

The official religious community of Nadworna, Cultusvorstand, was established at the end of the nineteenth century. Its first president was Yaakov Hirsch. After his family lost its fortune he was replaced by Leizer Griffel (Yosef Budner, "Kehilat nadvorna," Sefer Nadvurna, 15). Josef Mehr was mentioned as the president of the community in 1899 (Die Welt, no. 15, 14 April 1899, p. 3; no. 51, 22 December 1899, p. 12).

The Zionist association Zion was established in Nadworna on May 22, 1898.

 

 

 

Further reading: Nadworna - Jews in the interwar period

Nadworna dynasty in Israel

Community: 

The current flourishing center of Nadworna Hasidism in the Tel Aviv suburb of Bnei Brak was established by Rabbi Haim Mordechai (1903-1977) (Alfasi, 1:84), son of the Rabbi Ittamar Rosenbaum (1886-1973), known as "the Old Rabbi from Nadworna," a grandson of Rabbi Meir Rosenbaum (1852-1908) of Kretshnef (Crăciuneşti, Karàcsonfalva in Romania), a great-grandson of Rabbi Mordechai of Nadworna. The Bnei Brak center was created by Rabbi Haim Mordechai's son Rabbi Yaakov Issachar Ber (Alfasi, 1:87). Many other offspring of the dynasty have their courts in Israel and in America.

On the Nadworna dynasty see here.

Nadworna Hasidic dynasty

Community: 

The Nadworna Hasidic dynasty was established by Rabbi Issachar Berche, the son of Yitshak Leifer from Kalisz, a grandson of Rabbi Meir "the Great" of Premishlan (Alfasi, 1:78). He was succeeded in Nadworna by his sons, Rabbi Aharon Arie Leib and Rabbi Mordechai. Rabbi Mordechai Leifer was one of the most famous and influential Hasidic leaders of his time. Although he moved to Chust and later to Bushtina, he was known as Rabbi Mordchele Nadverner (Shmuel Hübner, "Di rabonim un admorim in nedverne," Sefer Nadvurna, 24 [Heb.], 122 [Yid.]). Rabbi Aharon Arie Leib Leifer stayed in Nadworna and was succeeded by his son R. Moshe Leifer, who moved to Vienna during World War I (Alfasi, 1:78).

On the Nadworna dynasty see here.

See also:

Nadworna - Rabbis and Rebbes

Nadworna dynasty in Israel

Nadworna - Jews in the interwar period

Community: 

 

 

 

The degree of influence of different Zionist factions in Nadworna can be seen in the following table which shows the voting results in the elections to the Zionist Congresses between 1927-1939 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329):

 

General Zionists

Mizrahi

Hitahdut-Poalei Zion

League for the workers' Eretz Israel

Revisionists

Party of the State

Radical Zionists

1927

45

32

52

 

1

 

24

1931

118

48

311

 

102

 

 

1933

167

16

 

316

79

 

2

1935

227

57

 

452

 

1

3

1939

135

60

 

280

 

 

 

 

Hebrew courses of the Tarbut school network operated during the interwar period. Children studied there three times a week after they finished classes in the official Polish school. The first teacher was Stoller, later came Konorowsky and in the end, Schochat (Giza Petranker, "The Hebrew Scholl ‘Tarbut' of Nadworna," Sefer Nadvurna, 50 [English part], 85 [Hebrew part]). In 1933, there were 30 students in the courses, but their number decreased by 1938 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329).

A Jewish public library existed in Nadworna before the First World War. It was reopened after the war and included about 2,000 volumes in Polish, Yiddish and Hebrew. The Yehudiyah organization operated an amateur drama group in the town (Pinkas Hakehilot, 329). Almost all political bodies organized lectures and entertainment for local Jews. Likewise, two sport clubs, Ha-koah (Power) and Maccabi, existed in Nadworna. "Ha-koah" flourished in the 1930s, especially its soccer team (Israel Grauer, "'Ha-koah' be-nadvorna," Sefer Nadvurna, 86; Pinkas Hakehilot, 329).

After World War I, the president of the local Jewish community was Moshe Budner, who enjoyed the support of the craftsmen association Yad Harutsim. After he left political activity (ca. 1930), his place as the president was taken by his son, Dr. Yosef Budner, also with the support of the Yad Harutsim (Yosef Budner, "Kehilat nadvorna," Sefer Nadvurna, 16). In the elections of 1938, the "Bourgeois Bloc" of centrist Zionist parties defeated the "Democratic Bloc" of Jewish left-wing parties. As a result, Dr. Michael Sterer became the president of the Jewish community council (Budner, "Kehilat nadvorna," Sefer Nadvurna, 16).

Eighteen Jews were elected to the town council in 1927 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330).

 

Further reading: Nadworna - Holocaust

Nadworna - Holocaust

Community: 

 

With the outbreak of World War II, Nadworna was occupied by the Soviet Army on September 20, 1939 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330). However, in the first days of the Soviet invasion there were no authorities in Nadworna. Young Jews organized self-defense units, which patrolled the streets and even helped the Jews in Solotwin to stop the plundering of houses and shops by local Ukrainian peasants (Israel Carmi, "Tahat ha-kibush ha-sovieti," Sefer Nadvurna, 150).

With the Soviet consolidation of power, the activity of the Jewish community and of all Jewish political organizations was prohibited.

After the attack of the German army on the Soviet Union, Nadworna was occupied by Hungarian troops on July 1, 1941 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330). Several representatives of Nadworna Jewry turned to the Hungarian military authorities in order to prevent attacks by the local Ukrainian population on Jews. Despite these efforts, a pogrom took place in mid-July 1941, and dozens of Jews were killed (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330). Ukrainian nationalists accused Jews of cooperating with the Soviets and of participating in the mass killings of Ukrainian prisoners in the forests around the town.

In September 1941, Nadworna passed over to the German occupation zone (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330). Nadworna Jews were ordered to wear white bandages with the Star of David and to supply individuals for forced labor. The head of the Nadworna Jewish Council (Judenrat) was Dr. Maximilian Schal and his deputy was Yitzhak Schapira (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330).

The first "action" took place on October 6, 1941. More then 2,000 Jews were collected by the local Ukrainian police and brutally murdered in the Bukovinka forest next to the town. Jews from the Nadworna region and Jewish refugees from the Carpato-Rus area that were expelled to Nadworna by Hungarians just a month before the "action" were also among those who perished in the Bukovinka forest (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330).

Two ghettos were established in Nadworna in the spring of 1942: one for those who were able to work in forced labor brigades and another one for those who were not capable of working. Jews were forbidden to move between the ghettos after April 30, 1942 (Pinkas Hakehilot, 330). Living conditions were horrible in both ghettos but residents of the second one were the immediate target for extermination.

In August 1942, Dr. Maximilian Schal and members of Judenrat were arrested and taken to the Gestapo Office in Stanislawow where they were tortured and accused of issuing permits to Jews to work outside of Nadworna. They returned to the town but the Jews were forced to pay a contribution of 25,000 złoty (it grew to 28,000 złoty) to secure their release (Pinkas Hakehilot, 331).

Most of the Jews of Nadworna and the region were murdered in the "actions" of the fall of 1942. Some of them were sent to Stanislawow where they were murdered later with Jews from other places (Pinkas Hakehilot, 331).

Nadworna was liberated by the Soviet Army on July 26, 1944. Only handful of Nadworna Jews survived the Holocaust (Pinkas Hakehilot, 331).

 

Further reading: Nadworna - after WWII

Nadworna - after WWII

Community: 

 

There was no Jewish population in Nadworna after World War II. All synagogues were destroyed, but the Jewish cemetery is preserved to this day (Grandeur and Glory, 1:163-5). Photographs of the cemetery see in the Gallery section.

The Memorial book of the Nadworna Jewish community was prepared and edited by Israel Carmi and published in 1975 by the Landsmanshaft of Nadworna in Israel and America.

 

Definition: kloyz

 

Kloyz - A name for small Jewish prayer house usually belonging to a Hasidic group.